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突破新SAT阅读文献的三个维度

2018-09-20 10:22     供稿单位: 新航道     原创作者:张强    

出国英语考试有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思阅读评分标准 托福阅读评分标准 雅思和托福的区别

新SAT阅读自2016年3月开考至今,它的考查形式、考点与套路越来越清晰的呈现在大家面前。

 

在社科、自然、对比文、文献及小说这5篇文章中,大部分同学反映难度最大的其实还是在文献文章,很多场次中文献的难度要大于小说。如何更好的把握文献的主题及结构,有限的时间内做对更多的题目就成为当务之急。鉴于文献的难度及复杂性,本文简单从三个维度对其进行剖析。

 

2300多年前的古希腊哲学家Aristotle(亚里斯多德)在他的《雄辩的艺术》(The Art of Rhetoric)中就曾经论述到:一次成功的演说只有包含了“pathos, ethos and logos”这三方面才会有效的去说服别人。

 

古希腊能够成为哲学的发源地与这三个词也不无关系。阅读中文献文章就性质来说都是议论文,有些文章直接选自美国历史上名人政要的演讲,而演讲是最能明显体现这三个方面的。

 

1 、Pathos(appeal to emotion)

 

主要指情感上的影响力,单调的数据或高调的论述很多时候并不足以说服人,“情感共鸣(empathy)”在好的文章或演说中起至关重要的作用,同样的内容,如果用生动精彩的语言传递出去,打动人心引起共鸣,这种效果是截然不同的。

 

例子

  

The colors of our skins, the languages of our cultural and native origins, the lack of formal education, the exclusion from the democratic process, the numbers of our men slain in recent wars-all these burdens generation after generation have sought to demoralize us, to break our human spirit. But God knows that we are not beasts of burden, agricultural implements, or rented slaves: we are men. And mark this well, Mr. Barr, we are men locked in a death struggle against man’s inhumanity to man in the industry that you represent. And this struggle itself gives meaning to our life and ennobles our dying.

 

解析

  

在此信的开端部分,Chavez描写了农场工人的悲惨境遇,地位低下,长期以来被当作奴隶看待,“我们今天的抗争就是使我们的生命有意义,即使是死了也是高贵的”。作者通过这种使读者身临其境的感情描述,不仅表达了自己的立场又使读者非常好的实现了情感共鸣。

  

例子

  

When human beings are regarded as moral beings, sex, instead of being enthroned upon the summit, administering upon rights and responsibilities, sinks into insignificance and nothingness. My doctrine then is, that whatever it is morally right for man to do, it is morally rights for woman to do. Our duties originate, not from difference of sex, but from the diversity of our relations in life, the various gifts and talents committed to our care, and the different eras in which we live.

  

解析

  

此文中,作者以道德权利的平等唤起女性的共鸣,既然男性morally right to do,那么女性也享有同等的权利。

  

2 、Ethos(appeal to credibility)

  

词源上来说,ethos源于希腊语词ethikos, 亚里士多德认为必须在听众中建立一种“道德可信度”,也就是moral credibility. 所以要强有力的说服他人,使他人信服文章中作者所提到的内容,就必须提供真实可靠的依据或亲身经历或作者本身一个权威的身份。

  

例子

  

During that period we have increased from four millions to thirty millions of people; we have extended our territory from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean; we have acquired the Florida’s and Texas, and other territory sufficient to double our geographical extent; we have increased in population, in wealth, and in power beyond any example on earth; we have risen from a weak and feeble power to become the terror and admiration of the civilized world; and all this has been done under a Constitution which Mr. Lincoln, in substance, says is in violation of the law of God;

  

解析

  

文中作者以美国长时间以来的人口增长、领土扩张以及国家发展这个事实为依据,反对了林肯对现行法律的抨击,有理有据,建立在credibility之上使听众有充分的信服。

  

例子

  

I mentioned it Yesterday to your Excellency as my Opinion, that Excluding the People of the Colonies from all Share in the Choice of the Grand Council would probably give extreme Dissatisfaction, as well as the Taxing them by Act of Parliament where they have no Representative. In Matters of General Concern to the People, and especially where Burthens are to be laid upon them, it is of Use to consider as well what they will be.

  

解析

  

富兰克林在此文的开篇就直接点明一个事实:殖民地人民在议会中没有代表就会产生强烈的不满。基于这个事实,富兰克林反对了英国对殖民地的专制统治,加之富兰克林自身在北美早期的影响力,一种天然的credibility就建立起来。

  

3 、Logos(appeal to logic)

  

在苏格拉底之前,logos表示“对宇宙认识的理论”,后来又表示“对一个论题的诡辩”。现在指的就是“逻辑证明”,当然在文章中就是作者支持论点的逻辑思维是否清晰,演绎和归纳如何,另外也要看是否有正反两方面的论据等。通常来说,考试中多数文献文章会出现如下的逻辑结构:

  

        1、Background information(introduction)

  2、Author’s claim and supporting evidence

  3、Concession /Counterclaims

  4、Reiterate/Conclusion

  

同学们从这种“logos”入手相对能更容易的把握文献的主题.

  

题目

 

?When I so pressingly urge a strict observance of all the laws, let me not be understood as saying there are no bad laws, nor that grievances may not arise, for the redress of which, no legal provisions have been made. I mean to say no such thing. But I do mean to say, that, although bad laws, if they exist, should be repealed as soon as possible, still while they continue in force, for the sake of example, they should be religiously observed.

  

解析

  

文章中林肯提出每个人必须遵守法律这个观点之后,又做出了一定的让步, “我并不是说就没有坏的法律了,冤案就不会出现了,坏的法律存在就应该被废除”.一定程度的让步或承认他人观点的正确性,其实就是为了强调自己观点的严谨性和重要性。

  

“pathos, ethos, logos”这三个维度正是我们理解SAT文献文章的精髓所在。对文章中作者这种说服方式的洞悉与把握必须建立在长期的训练与阅读能力的提高上。文献文章的突破也不是朝夕之功,需多阅读,多反思,多补充背景,这不仅对于考试而且对于将来美国大学的学习也大有裨益。

 

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